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Ure Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA); RPMI 1640 medium and PBS were purchased from BioWhittaker (Walkersville, MD); Gentamycin, penicillin/streptomycin, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), and Polybrene were obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO); MethoCultTM GF M3434, semi-solid medium was obtained from StemCell Technologies (Vancouver, Canada); DiffQuik, a modified Wright-Giemsa stain was
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C capacity functionally, but like primary AMs deficient in MARCO and SR-AI/II, ZK cells were significantly impaired in phagocytosis compared to the WT AMs due to deficiency in scavenger receptors.-Page 5 of(page number not for citation purposes)Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2008, 5:http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/5/1/A. Unopsonized Red Blood CellsNo lysisLysisB. Opsonized Red Blo
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Es represent the gag sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. The blue squares show the new divergent branches formed by viruses sampled in this study. Sequence C.ZM.2006.ZM1464F appears to have been mis-labelled in the LANL database, and consistently groups with subtype A1. Additional file 2: Detailed phylogenetic a
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Ogeneous cell populations. We showed here that all three of ZK cell lines responded in a manner comparable to that of primary murine alveolar macrophages. Morphologically, they are alveolar macrophage-like with Diff Quik, a modified Wright staining (Fig. 3). They all highly expressed macrophage antigens, F4/80 and CD11b on cell surfaces by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry assays (Fig.
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Mpled sequences are likely CRF02_AG (accounting for 50 of HIV-1M infections), with the other "pure" subtypes (G, D, A, and F) and CRFs (CRF11_cpx, 36_cpx, 37_cpx, and CRF01_AE) accounting for the remainder of infections. CRF02_AG and clade G viruses are broadly distributed across west central Africa and have apparently been circulating stably there for many years [3,17-19], consistent with the pr
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Nowledgements The authors are grateful to Andile Nofemela and Roman Ntale for technical assistance with viral sequencing. This research was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (technical co-operation project RAF/6/ 029), Poliomyelitis Research Foundation (PRF) of South Africa and the University of Cape Town, for collaborative projects with partners in the global South. We thank Ger
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Surface expression of the macrophage-associated differentiation Ags was assessed by direct immunofluorescence (thick lines). ZK1 cells were incubated with FITC-labeled anti-mouse F4/80 or FITC-labeled anti-mouse CD11b. Mouse IgG2a and IgG2b were used as isotype controls (light lines). Staining of cells with FITC-labeled anti-mouse Ig compared to unstained cells detects the of cells expressing su
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Night at 37 . Unopsonized (as negative control) or preopsonized SRBC were plated on monolayer of ZK1 cells at a ratio of 20:1 and incubated at 37 for 1 h. After removal of free SRBC by medium exchange and lysis by osmotic shock, the cells on the cover glass were fixed and stained with a modified Wright stain, subsequently examined by light microscopy. Panel A, ZK1 cells were unable to ingest unop