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Ck squares at the end of the branches represent the nef sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. Abbreviations HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; CRF: Circulating recombinant form; URF: Unique recombinant form; RNA: Ribonucleic acid; PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction. Competing interests The authors declare that they ha
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Kh R, Awazi B, Hewlett I: Increased genetic diversity and intersubtype recombinants of HIV-1 in blood donors from urban Cameroon. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007, 45:361?63. 6. Ndembi N, Abraha A, Pilch H, Ichimura H, Mbanya D, Kaptue L, Salata R, Arts EJ: Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in Yaounde, Cameroon: evidence of major drug resistance mu
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Surface expression of the macrophage-associated differentiation Ags was assessed by direct immunofluorescence (thick lines). ZK1 cells were incubated with FITC-labeled anti-mouse F4/80 or FITC-labeled anti-mouse CD11b. Mouse IgG2a and IgG2b were used as isotype controls (light lines). Staining of cells with FITC-labeled anti-mouse Ig compared to unstained cells detects the of cells expressing su
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Ure Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA); RPMI 1640 medium and PBS were purchased from BioWhittaker (Walkersville, MD); Gentamycin, penicillin/streptomycin, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), and Polybrene were obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO); MethoCultTM GF M3434, semi-solid medium was obtained from StemCell Technologies (Vancouver, Canada); DiffQuik, a modified Wright-Giemsa stain was
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C capacity functionally, but like primary AMs deficient in MARCO and SR-AI/II, ZK cells were significantly impaired in phagocytosis compared to the WT AMs due to deficiency in scavenger receptors.-Page 5 of(page number not for citation purposes)Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2008, 5:http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/5/1/A. Unopsonized Red Blood CellsNo lysisLysisB. Opsonized Red Blo
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Es represent the gag sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. The blue squares show the new divergent branches formed by viruses sampled in this study. Sequence C.ZM.2006.ZM1464F appears to have been mis-labelled in the LANL database, and consistently groups with subtype A1. Additional file 2: Detailed phylogenetic a
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Ogeneous cell populations. We showed here that all three of ZK cell lines responded in a manner comparable to that of primary murine alveolar macrophages. Morphologically, they are alveolar macrophage-like with Diff Quik, a modified Wright staining (Fig. 3). They all highly expressed macrophage antigens, F4/80 and CD11b on cell surfaces by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry assays (Fig.
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Mpled sequences are likely CRF02_AG (accounting for 50 of HIV-1M infections), with the other "pure" subtypes (G, D, A, and F) and CRFs (CRF11_cpx, 36_cpx, 37_cpx, and CRF01_AE) accounting for the remainder of infections. CRF02_AG and clade G viruses are broadly distributed across west central Africa and have apparently been circulating stably there for many years [3,17-19], consistent with the pr